pop-view

The popphp/pop-view component provides an API to build and manage views to display to the user interface. Both file-based and stream-based templates are supported.

Installation

Install it directly into your project:

composer require popphp/pop-view

Or, include it in your composer.json file:

{
    "require": {
        "popphp/pop-view": "3.0.*",
    }
}

Basic Use

The popphp/pop-view component provides the functionality for creating and rendering views within your application. Data can be passed into a view, filtered and pushed out to the UI of the application to be rendering within the view template. As mentioned in the MVC section of the user guide, the popphp/pop-view component supports both file-based and stream-based templates.

Files

With file-based view templates, the view object utilizes traditional PHP script files with the extension .php or .phtml. The benefit of this type of template is that you can fully leverage PHP in manipulating and displaying your data in your view.

Let’s revisit and expand upon the basic example given in the previous MVC section. First let’s take a look at the view template, index.phtml:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <title><?=$title; ?></title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1><?=$title; ?></h1>
<?=$content; ?>
    <ul>
<?php foreach ($links as $url => $link): ?>
        <li><a href="<?=$url; ?>"><?=$link; ?></a></li>
<?php endforeach; ?>
    </ul>
</body>

</html>

Then, we can set up the view and its data like below. Notice in the script above, we’ve set it up to loop through an array of links with the $links variable.

$data = [
    'title'   => 'View Example',
    'content' => '    <p>Some page content.</p>',
    'links'   => [
        'http://www.popphp.org/'     => 'Pop PHP Framework',
        'http://popcorn.popphp.org/' => 'Popcorn Micro Framework',
        'http://www.phirecms.org/'   => 'Phire CMS'
    ]
];

$view = new Pop\View\View('index.phtml', $data);

echo $view;

The result of the above example is:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <title>View Example</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>View Example</h1>
    <p>Some page content.</p>
    <ul>
        <li><a href="http://www.popphp.org/">Pop PHP Framework</a></li>
        <li><a href="http://popcorn.popphp.org/">Popcorn Micro Framework</a></li>
        <li><a href="http://www.phirecms.org/">Phire CMS</a></li>
    </ul>
</body>

</html>

As mentioned before, the benefit of using file-based templates is you can fully leverage PHP within the script file. One common thing that can be utilized when using file-based templates is file includes. This helps tidy up your template code and makes script files easier to manage by re-using template code. Here’s an example that would work for the above script:

header.phtml

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <title><?=$title; ?></title>
</head>
<body>

footer.phtml

</body>

</html>

index.phtml

<?php include __DIR__ . '/header.phtml'; ?>
    <h1><?=$title; ?></h1>
<?=$content; ?>
    <ul>
<?php foreach ($links as $url => $link): ?>
        <li><a href="<?=$url; ?>"><?=$link; ?></a></li>
<?php endforeach; ?>
    </ul>
<?php include __DIR__ . '/footer.phtml'; ?>

Streams

With stream-based view templates, the view object uses a string template to render the data within the view. While using this method doesn’t allow the use of PHP directly in the template like the file-based templates do, it does support basic logic and iteration to manipulate your data for display. The benefit of this is that it provides some security in locking down a template and not allowing PHP to be directly processed within it. Additionally, the template strings can be easily stored and managed within the application and remove the need to have to edit and transfer template files to and from the server. This is a common tactic used by content management systems that have template functionality built into them.

Let’s look at the same example from above, but with a stream template:

$tmpl = <<<TMPL
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <title>[{title}]</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>[{title}]</h1>
[{content}]
    <ul>
[{links}]
        <li><a href="[{key}]">[{value}]</a></li>
[{/links}]
    </ul>
</body>

</html>
TMPL;

The above code snippet is a template stored as string. The stream-based templates use a system of placeholders to mark where you want the value to go within the template string. This is common with most string-based templating engines. In the case of popphp/pop-view, the placeholder uses the square bracket/curly bracket combination to wrap the variable name, such as [{title}]. In the special case of arrays, where iteration is allowed, the placeholders are marked the same way, but have an end mark like you see in the above template: [{links}] to [{/links}]. The iteration you need can happen in between those placeholder marks.

Let’s use the exact same examples from above, except passing the string template, $tmpl, into the view constructor:

$data = [
    'title'   => 'View Example',
    'content' => '    <p>Some page content.</p>',
    'links'   => [
        'http://www.popphp.org/'     => 'Pop PHP Framework',
        'http://popcorn.popphp.org/' => 'Popcorn Micro Framework',
        'http://www.phirecms.org/'   => 'Phire CMS'
    ]
];

$view = new Pop\View\View($tmpl, $data);

echo $view;

We can achieve exact same results as above:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <title>View Example</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>View Example</h1>
    <p>Some page content.</p>
    <ul>
        <li><a href="http://www.popphp.org/">Pop PHP Framework</a></li>
        <li><a href="http://popcorn.popphp.org/">Popcorn Micro Framework</a></li>
        <li><a href="http://www.phirecms.org/">Phire CMS</a></li>
    </ul>
</body>

</html>

As mentioned before, the benefit of using stream-based templates is you can limit the use of PHP within the template for security, as well as store the template strings within the application for easier access and management for the application users. And, streams can be stored in a number of ways. The most common is as a string in the application’s database that gets passed in to the view’s constructor. But, you can store them in a text-based file, such as index.html or template.txt, and the view constructor will detect that and grab the string contents from that template file. This will be applicable when we cover includes and inheritance, as you will need to be able to reference other string-based templates outside of the main one currently being used by the view object.

Stream Syntax

Scalars

Examples of using scalar values were shown above. You wrap the name of the variable in the placeholder bracket notation, [{title}], in which the variable $title will render.

Arrays

As mentioned in the example above, iterating over arrays use a similar bracket notation, but with a start key [{links}] and an end key with a slash [{/links}]. In between those markers, you can write a line of code in the template to define what to display for each iteration:

$data = [
    'links'   => [
        'http://www.popphp.org/'     => 'Pop PHP Framework',
        'http://popcorn.popphp.org/' => 'Popcorn Micro Framework',
        'http://www.phirecms.org/'   => 'Phire CMS'
    ]
];
[{links}]
        <li><a href="[{key}]">[{value}]</a></li>
[{/links}]

Additionally, when you are iterating over an array in a stream template, you have access to a counter in the form of the placeholder, [{i}]. That way, if you need to, you can mark each iteration uniquely:

[{links}]
        <li id="li-item-[{i}]"><a href="[{key}]">[{value}]</a></li>
[{/links}]

The above template would render like this:

<li id="li-item-1"><a href="http://www.popphp.org/">Pop PHP Framework</a></li>
<li id="li-item-2"><a href="http://popcorn.popphp.org/">Popcorn Micro Framework</a></li>
<li id="li-item-3"><a href="http://www.phirecms.org/">Phire CMS</a></li>

You can also access nested associated arrays and their values by key name, to give you an additional level of control over your data, like so:

$data = [
    'links' => [
        [
            'title' => 'Pop PHP Framework',
            'url'   => 'http://www.popphp.org/'
        ],
        [
            'title' => 'Popcorn Micro Framework',
            'url'   => 'http://popcorn.popphp.org/'
        ]
    ]
];
[{links}]
        <li><a href="[{url}]">[{title}]</a></li>
[{/links}]

The above template and data would render like this:

<li><a href="http://www.popphp.org/">Pop PHP Framework</a></li>
<li><a href="http://popcorn.popphp.org/">Popcorn Micro Framework</a></li>

Conditionals

Stream-based templates support basic conditional logic as well to test if a variable is set. Here’s an “if” statement:

[{if(foo)}]
    <p>The variable 'foo' is set to [{foo}].</p>
[{/if}]

And here’s an “if/else” statement:

[{if(foo)}]
    <p>The variable 'foo' is set to [{foo}].</p>
[{else}]
    <p>The variable 'foo' is not set.</p>
[{/if}]

You can also use conditionals to check if a value is set in an array:

[{if(foo[bar])}]
    <p>The value of '$foo[$bar]' is set to [{foo[bar]}].</p>
[{/if}]

Furthermore, you can test if a value is set within a loop of an array, like this:

$data = [
    'links' => [
        [
            'title' => 'Pop PHP Framework',
            'url'   => 'http://www.popphp.org/'
        ],
        [
            'title' => 'Popcorn Micro Framework'
        ]
    ]
];
[{links}]
[{if(url)}]
        <li><a href="[{url}]">[{title}]</a></li>
[{/if}]
[{/links}]

The above template and data would only render one item because the url key is not set in the second value:

<li><a href="http://www.popphp.org/">Pop PHP Framework</a></li>

An “if/else” statement also works within an array loop as well:

[{links}]
[{if(url)}]
        <li><a href="[{url}]">[{title}]</a></li>
[{else}]
        <li>No URL was set</li>
[{/if}]
[{/links}]
<li><a href="http://www.popphp.org/">Pop PHP Framework</a></li>
<li>No URL was set</li>

Includes

As referenced earlier, you can store stream-based templates as files on disk. This is useful if you want to utilize includes with them. Consider the following templates:

header.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <title>[{title}]</title>
</head>
<body>

footer.html

</body>

</html>

You could then reference the above templates in the main template like below:

index.html

{{@include header.html}}
    <h1>[{title}]</h1>
[{content}]
{{@include footer.html}}

Note the include token uses a double curly bracket and @ symbol.

Inheritance

Inheritance, or blocks, are also supported with stream-based templates. Consider the following templates:

parent.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
{{header}}
    <title>[{title}]</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
{{/header}}
</head>

<body>
    <h1>[{title}]</h1>
    [{content}]
</body>

</html>

child.html

{{@extends parent.html}}

{{header}}
{{parent}}
    <style>
        body { margin: 0; padding: 0; color: #bbb;}
    </style>
{{/header}}

Render using the parent:

$view = new Pop\View\View('parent.html');
$view->title   = 'Hello World!';
$view->content = 'This is a test!';

echo $view;

will produce the following HTML:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>

    <title>Hello World!</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

</head>

<body>
    <h1>Hello World!</h1>
    This is a test!
</body>

</html>

Render using the child:

$view = new Pop\View\View('child.html');
$view->title   = 'Hello World!';
$view->content = 'This is a test!';

echo $view;

will produce the following HTML:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>

    <title>Hello World!</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

    <style>
        body { margin: 0; padding: 0; color: #bbb;}
    </style>

</head>

<body>
    <h1>Hello World!</h1>
    This is a test!
</body>

</html>

As you can see, using the child template that extends the parent, the {{header}} section was extended, incorporating the additional style tags in the header of the HTML. Note that the placeholder tokens for the extending a template use double curly brackets.

Filtering Data

You can apply filters to the data in the view as well for security and tidying up content. You pass the addFilter() method a callable and any optional parameters and then call the filter() method to iterate through the data and apply the filters.

$view = new Pop\View\View('index.phtml', $data);
$view->addFilter('strip_tags');
$view->addFilter('htmlentities', [ENT_QUOTES, 'UTF-8'])
$view->filter();

echo $view;

You can also use the addFilters() to apply muliple filters at once:

$view = new Pop\View\View('index.phtml', $data);
$view->addFilters([
    [
        'call'   => 'strip_tags'
    ],
    [
        'call'   => 'htmlentities',
        'params' => [ENT_QUOTES, 'UTF-8']
    ]
]);

$view->filter();

echo $view;

And if need be, you can clear the filters out of the view object as well:

$view->clearFilters();